聂日明:国企:从为民生产到“为自己赚钱”

324日,在“转型市场之鉴与投资机遇”财新圆桌会议中,平安证券董事长杨宇翔表示,中国前10年的国企改革重组在打破垄断上起到一定程度的作用,但目前改革带来的动力在快速衰减,刘明康亦表示,中国必须要坚定地推进国内垄断行业的改革。

近几年来,“国进民退”始终是舆论的焦点,政府层面对此论调多有驳斥。前国资委主任李荣融认为不存在国进民退,政策对国企的保护比以前少多了。国家统计局局长马建堂认为数据上不支持总体上的国进民退现象。确实如此,国企资产总额、户数、主营业务收入、利润总额等各方面的相对指标确实出现系统性降低,李、马的说法不无道理。但实情到底如何?

从国企改革的历史来看,1999年党的十五届四中全会通过的《中共中央关于国有企业改革和发展若干重大问题的决定》中对国企经营的范围定位是:涉及国家安全的行业,自然垄断的行业,提供重要公共产品和服务的行业,以及支柱产业和高新技术产业中的重要骨干企业。2002年党的十六大进一步明确,除极少数必须由国家独资经营的企业外,要积极推行股份制、推进垄断行业改革、引入竞争机制。

2006年,在《国务院办公厅转发国资委关于推进国有资本调整和国有企业重组指导意见》的文件中,国有企业经营范围的定位却变成,“涉及国家安全的行业,重大基础设施和重要矿产资源,提供重要公共产品和服务的行业,以及支柱产业和高新技术产业中的重要骨干企业”,大大扩展了国企的经营范围。

分析当前产业结构,也验证了这种变化。国民经济的基础性与关键性行业,国企出现了系统性的集中,在石油、交通运输、采矿等尤为突出。例如石油行业的横向与纵向双重一体化,石油与天然气开采业的国有比重从2005年的96.3%上升到2006年的98.6%,在2008年下降以后,2009年以后又呈上升势头。黑色金属冶炼及压延加工工业、燃气的生产和供应业和交通运输设备制造业的国有比重分别从2008年的56.7%57.1%51.6%上升至2009年的57.5%68.7%52.9%。在国企整体规模收缩的同时,行政垄断、关键产业优势却在不断强化。这才是公众所指责的国进民退。

让大众感受更为深刻的是国进民退所带来的变化。首先,近十年来的宏观经济调控与产业政策调整中,国企总是在调控中壮大,而民企总是在调控中倒下。2004年控制经济过热,江苏铁本倒下了,宝钢产能提高了50%2008年下半年经济衰退,民企主动要求被国企并购、戴红帽子,国企利用要素优势打通产业链的上下游,得到进一步扩张。2009年,山西煤炭业整合,温州民营资本被迫出局,山西国企统一煤矿资源。这些案例都透视着关键领域的国进民退。

其次,对大众来说,最为关键的国进民退是与民争利。长久以来,国有企业承担的功能是为民生产,即公共服务的提供者,如水、电、交通、通信等。这时的国企是政府的包袱,所以国企改革的核心在于甩包袱。在这一过程中,国有企业按现代公司治理理念被界定为“国家出资企业”,在国企不断的资本化(股份制改革与国企上市)的过程中,通过对国有资产的经营获取利润成为国企改革的主要思路。此时政府作为国有股权的实际控制人,其职能就从“为民生产”变成了“为自己赚钱”。2011年利润排前十的上市公司,多为银行、石油、通信等行业,它们的利润就是消费者的成本,怎么能说不是国进民退?

毫无疑问,随着国企在关键领域优势的强化,“为自己赚钱”的冲动会越来越强,形成的利益集团亦会越来越强,必然会反对任何削弱这些优势地位的举措。这意味着,从打破垄断的角度来处置国进民退很难奏效。因此,解决国进民退的负面效果需要有新的思路。如果强调国企作为常规公司的逐利特性,国有股份就必须从关键性行业退出,而非简单地打破垄断,因为政府总是会对亲生儿子青睐有加。而如果认可国企“为民生产”的特性,那国企应该由人民的代表来控制,也就是让人民代表大会代表人民行使国有资产的出资人角色。在人民代表的控制下,国企将可以很好地完成“为自己赚钱”到“为人民服务”的转型。

作者是上海金融与法律研究院研究员。

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