《思想库报告》2015年第7期 / 总第508期

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编辑手记

美国清洁空气法案出台之后,是谁承担了空气质量提升的成本?又是谁从污染减少中受益?穷人和弱势群体的就业机会、住宅花费有没有受损?加图研究所的《清洁空气法规制的受益者》对此进行了详细的分析。总体而言,在空气质量上穷人和富人都受益,而且清洁空气法案也没有对就业市场造成什么影响。

对环保署的努力存在不同解读是可能的。抱怨声小的一派意见认为,遭到经济学家数十年指责的环保立法缺陷,持续造成不良后果。环保立法设定不切实际的污染排放标准。配套政策成本过高,难以实行。上述这些政策引发环保署和行业踯躅不前,最终引发环保主义者动用法律武器,来推进雄心勃勃的环保标准。因此,拖沓延迟成为不可避免。

抱怨声大的一派意见认为,毫无证据证明这些监管措施确实有用的。如果历经数十年努力仍然不能找到令人信服的证据证明问题的确存在,那么这场将污染控制在很低水平上的运动,就是毫无意义的。

无论事实怎样,数十年来有关环保政策的经济分析自相矛盾,但在政治上环保监管仍是无可动摇的。另外,法庭介入的风险依然存在。这种混乱的局面,似乎将持续下去。

不管发电怎么改革,关键点在尊重市场,即使是限制价格也要徘徊在供求平衡处。其它情况下的次优市场,都会过于复杂且效率低下。就美国现在清洁能源改革而言,太阳能的成本过高。一般而言,公用事业级别的太阳能电池板的装机平均成本是每度电8美分,商用级别的太阳能电池板平均成本是每度电12美分,住宅太阳能电池板的平均成本是每度电24美分。对比之下,天然气发电每度电5.8美分,化石燃料发电每度电成本更低,补贴不过才每度电0.11美分。

 欢迎各位订阅者登录思想库博客think.sifl.org发表评论,与更多人分享观点。

 

目录

专题报告:能源与环保

清洁空气法规制的受益者

美国环保署对煤炭开战

发电:电价改革,补贴,清洁能源

 

《思想库报告》是上海金融与法律研究院(SIFL)出品的一份公益性电子刊物,以国际智库之思想,关照中国改革之现实。本刊与国际知名智库彼得森国际经济研究所(PIIE)、传统基金会(Heritage Foundation)、加图研究所(Cato Institute)、卡内基国际和平基金会以及Foreign Affairs建立了版权关系,并进行长期合作。

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