中国省际之间的隐性关税

一直以来,中国市场的整合程度很差,分割非常严重,这是国内经济低效的一个原因。

为了说明这点,我们来看一个非常有趣的事实:中国企业做外贸非常积极,但内贸非常消极。理论上,由于国际市场竞争更激烈,所以能玩得起出口的企业,一般都是生产率水平比较高的企业。但中国恰恰不一样,国内年轻学者吕丹通过实证研究,表明中国制造业里,出口企业的生产率平均而言都比不上内贸企,也就是说,在中国,要搞国内市场可能要比搞国际市场还要困难。为什么?

第一、国内商业环境不完善,交易成本高。

参考Doing Business Index这个指标,中国在商业环境上各方面的排名都非常低,183个国家里,中国最高的一项就是15名,低的有100多名的,最低的还有150名,综合来说,我们的商业环境有待提升的空间非常大。

第二、地方保护主义盛行,门槛高,进不去。

根据国务院发展研究中心研究员李善同的实证研究,国内特别像烟草、酒类、汽车、食品、药品、电力等行业,存在着最严重的地方保护主义。而根据我们的研究,凡是只在省内做生意,那么企业面临的法治环境、资金环境、市场环境、信用环境、社会环境等评价指标,省内均高于省外。而关于地方保护主义的新闻也是层出不穷,比如陕西省交通厅曾通过经营权政策迫使本地出租车司机更换比亚迪,湖北省和湖南省2009年分别出台文件直接要求本省各级政府优先采购本省产品。

第三、市场分割导致区域间跨区域物流成本、贸易成本都很高。

省际之间虽然不存在文化语言方面的区隔,但实际的贸易成本反而高于国际贸易的成本,根据学者Poncet的研究,中国省际之间的贸易成本接近于欧盟国家和美国与加拿大之间的贸易成本。我们也有研究显示,中国的物流总费用占GDP总量的18%左右,高于美国、日本等发达国家,甚至高于发展中国家。其中,物流成本中,最主要的并不来自于收费的成本,而是来自于罚款的成本。因此,从这个角度出发,为了降低区域物流成本,我们更应规范罚款的行为,而非过于纠结于收费问题。

如果把中国当作一个欧洲的话,把各个省当作一个小国家,我们把各个省之间的贸易成本当作一个关税,称其为隐性关税,那么,92年中国省际之间的隐性关税是48%,97年是53%,05年是28%。对比欧盟一体化和欧元区建立后的欧洲,可能我们现在的隐性关税还高于欧洲。

第四、营销成本高,渠道受限制。

我们为什么要建立一个不仅统一、而且高效的全国统一市场呢?

统一市场对于产业转移特别重要。我们强调产业结构的升级,腾笼换鸟。广东的企业由于成本过高,想要搬迁,尽管中央三番五次的号召,把企业搬到中西部,但是广东的企业宁愿搬到东南亚,搬到越南都不愿意搬到中西部,为什么呢?市场分割、供应链跟不上,物流成本高,离海又远。要实现中国的产业结构转移和升级,梯度发展让中西部跟上来,必须要有推动整合高效的全国统一市场。

企业要做大做强,必须要建立统一整合的高效的全国市场。我们中国市场看起来庞大,但一体化程度非常低。过去十几二十年,我们怎么样的企业才能真正利用全国市场呢?只有三类企业,第一类企业是央企,有行政资源,地方政府想分割,结果发现权利还没有人家央企高,没有办法分割。第二类企业就是BAT,所谓的互联网企业。第三类企业是我花得起钱,可以压倒你,可以克服你,比如奢侈品行业,比如大型的跨国企业,大型跨国企业说我可以克服物流成本高。其他的企业呢?特别是成长型的优秀企业要想开拓全国市场建立全国品牌难上加难,这些企业被迫要把自己的产业链做全,往矮胖型发展。

建立全国统一市场,对于区域平衡发展非常重要。我们现在要发展内地,如果说中西部自己又不靠海,又不建立全国统一市场,中西部自己生产的东西往哪去呢?

中央经济工作会议明确说了,必须深化改革开放,加快形成统一透明、有序规范的市场环境。我们的研究观点是可以适当延长高速公路收费期,但一定要罚款透明、高效,不要有乱罚的行为。我们要打破地方保护主义,严格限制地方政府对本地的保护和倾斜。加强法治,简政放权,改变地方政府行为模式,切实把改进市场环境作为发展地方经济的主要手段,只有切实改进了环境,才能有持续的地方经济发展。

本文为颜色教授在“年会2015:寻找增长的动力”的精彩演讲。

 

《思想库报告》是上海金融与法律研究院(SIFL)出品的一份公益性电子刊物,以国际智库之思想,关照中国改革之现实。本刊与国际知名智库彼得森国际经济研究所(PIIE)、传统基金会(Heritage Foundation)、加图研究所(Cato Institute)、卡内基国际和平基金会以及Foreign Affairs建立了版权关系,并进行长期合作。

 若您想订阅《思想库报告》,请发订阅申请到thinksifl@gmail.com进行订阅;若您不想被打扰,也请发送取消订阅邮件至上述邮箱。

扫一扫,关注《思想库报告》的微信。

1376887996

 

67个评论 to “中国省际之间的隐性关税”

  • Some really superb articles on this internet site, thanks for contribution.

  • Hello! Do you know if they make any plugins to safeguard against hackers? I’m kinda paranoid about losing everything I’ve worked hard on. Any tips?

  • how to patent 说道:

    Generally I don’t read post on blogs, however I would like to say that this write-up very pressured me to take a look at and do it! Your writing taste has been amazed me. Thanks, very nice post.

  • Hello.This post was really fascinating, especially since I was looking for thoughts on this subject last couple of days.

  • I wanted to thank you for this great read!! I definitely enjoying every little bit of it I have you bookmarked to check out new stuff you post…

  • tech 说道:

    Pretty component to content. I just stumbled upon your website and in accession capital to assert that I get actually enjoyed account your blog posts. Any way I will be subscribing for your augment and even I fulfillment you get right of entry to consistently fast.

  • Hi, just required you to know I he added your site to my Google bookmarks due to your layout. But seriously, I believe your internet site has 1 in the freshest theme I??ve came across. It extremely helps make reading your blog significantly easier.

  • Hi there, You have performed a fantastic job. I will definitely digg it and individually suggest to my friends. I am confident they’ll be benefited from this web site.

  • bolsas desechables 说道:

    What i don’t understood is actually how you’re no longer really much more smartly-preferred than you might be now. You are very intelligent. You realize thus significantly with regards to this topic, produced me for my part believe it from a lot of numerous angles. Its like men and women aren’t involved unless it’s something to do with Woman gaga! Your personal stuffs outstanding. All the time care for it up!

  • Auto Follower 说道:

    I was wondering if you ever thought of changing the page layout of your site? Its very well written; I love what youve got to say. But maybe you could a little more in the way of content so people could connect with it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having 1 or 2 images. Maybe you could space it out better?

  • Hi there, You’ve done a great job. I will definitely digg it and personally recommend to my friends. I am sure they’ll be benefited from this site.

  • autolikes 说道:

    Everyone loves what you guys are usually up too. This kind of clever work and reporting! Keep up the great works guys I’ve added you guys to blogroll.

  • Hen T-shirts 说道:

    Hi, Neat post. There is an issue with your site in web explorer, may test this?K IE nonetheless is the market chief and a large section of folks will leave out your wonderful writing because of this problem.

  • corporate flowers 说道:

    hello!,I like your writing very much! share we communicate more about your article on AOL? I need a specialist on this area to solve my problem. May be that’s you! Looking forward to see you.

  • Ombre Eyebrows 说道:

    Great post and straight to the point. I don’t know if this is actually the best place to ask but do you guys have any thoughts on where to get some professional writers? Thanks in advance :)

  • online courses 说道:

    I was wondering if you ever considered changing the layout of your website? Its very well written; I love what youve got to say. But maybe you could a little more in the way of content so people could connect with it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having one or two pictures. Maybe you could space it out better?

  • SarkariNaukriWala 说道:

    What i don’t understood is in truth how you are now not really a lot more well-appreciated than you may be now. You’re so intelligent. You realize thus significantly when it comes to this topic, made me individually consider it from so many numerous angles. Its like women and men don’t seem to be interested unless it’s something to accomplish with Woman gaga! Your personal stuffs outstanding. Always deal with it up!

  • 留下评论:

    昵称(必须):
    邮箱地址 (不会被公开) (必须):
    站点
    评论 (必须)