中国的权力结构和市场分割

我们不能把市场分割仅仅等同于地方保护主义,在我的理解里,只要劳动、资本、技术等要素的自由流动遭遇人为的限制,那么我们就可以说这个市场是存在着分割的现象。

因此,市场分割可以通过多种形式表现出来,施加分割市场的行为主体不一定仅仅是地方政府,甚至中央政府也有可能跳出来做这个事情,从部门产业的角度来看,我们同样可以看到很明显的市场分割线有国企一套政策,非国企一套政策,而且,国企里面有央企一套政策,还有非央企一套政策。从行政辖区角度看,两个辖区内互相排斥的现象也是很常见的,比如四川与重庆的相互排斥,再比如宁波自从计划单列市以后,好像就很不受浙江省政府的待见,导致宁波的经济发展最近好像跟杭州这些地方比起来有点乏力,哪怕地理位置这么近,互相排斥的动力却非常强。

而且,市场分割的多种形式有可能是互相交叉的,比如央企和非央企之间有可能形成一个互相排斥或者是互相保护的现象。比如前一段时间山东的魏桥事件,是央企电力部门在那边攻城略地,激起了地方势力强烈反弹的一个现象。包括西部大开发过程中,很多西北的一些地方政府本来是很欢迎央企过来的,但结果搞到后面,他们发现大部分利益其实全都被央企拿走了,于是就联合起来一起搞央企。比如前段时间甘肃饮用水变臭水的事件,其实就是地方政府主动捅出来的,原因就是央企把市场占了,不让地方政府分一杯羹,结果大家就打起来了。

也就是说,市场分割现象,不仅仅是地方保护主义的问题,其实是一个多层次、多种表现形式的一个问题,我们常说的地方保护主义事实上仅是一个经济利益的分割问题,但如果仅仅从经济利益的角度看待这个问题,会把这个问题的性质弄偏,在我看来,市场分割是以经济利益为谈判对象,实际上是通过经济利益的重新分配来保障政治利益的一种方式。

从政治学角度看,不管权力有多大,我不可能一个人去行使我的权力,我实际上是依靠其他人才能有效行使我的权力,因此,你要给支持者一定的经济利益或政治利益,实施市场分割获得利益的一方,就成为利益输送方的政策支持者,从而形成了一个以权力为后盾的利益输送关系网,只要这种利益交换机制能够稳定下来,就能形成获得利益的稳定预期,从而推动这种机制持续下去。

从这个逻辑出发是什么意思?意思是只要你在政治上需要支持,而且获取这种支持的重要手段是提供经济利益的话,这种利益交换机制就会形成,并且会具有一种自执行的机制,这种情况下市场分割的存在就有必然性。而且,考虑到结构的稳定性,除非发生重大的历史变动,一般来说权力结构一旦形成,出现重大的变化可能性是相当低的。

因此,我其实是比较悲观的,不管统一市场有多大的必要性和好处,在目前这种情况下,既然我们是以权力为后盾进行利益的交换,意味着越是在权力链的高端,就会获得越多的利益,市场分割在这个层次上表现出来的固性就会越大,越是在权力链的低端,由于机制固化所受损的可能性也就越大。

归根到底,所谓的市场分割和地方保护主义的问题,仍然是一个产权能不能得到有效保护的问题。

本文为复旦大学经济学院副教授章奇在“年会2015:寻找增长的动力”的精彩演讲。

 

《思想库报告》是上海金融与法律研究院(SIFL)出品的一份公益性电子刊物,以国际智库之思想,关照中国改革之现实。本刊与国际知名智库彼得森国际经济研究所(PIIE)、传统基金会(Heritage Foundation)、加图研究所(Cato Institute)、卡内基国际和平基金会以及Foreign Affairs建立了版权关系,并进行长期合作。

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